Structural optimization of reinforced concrete spatial structures with different structural openings and forms
Agim Seranaj1, Erald Elezi2, Altin Seranaj2
1Department of Structural Mechanics, Polytechnic University of Tirana, Albania
2Department of Building Constructions and Transport Infrastructure, Polytechnic University of Tirana, Albania
Finite Element Method,
The first reinforced concrete spatial structures date from 1920. These types of structures faded near 1970’s because of the high costs in formwork and labor work, but also from calculations difficulties. The technological evolution of formworks, as well as the advance of software industry for civil engineering, has helped to reach new levels of expertise during the structural design process. The scope of this analytical study is the use of structural openings to create new lighter, sustainable and architectural forms of structures, and using algorithms for form finding process. The paper includes structure cyclic analysis due to finding the appropriate position and geometrical form of the openings considering stresses, deformations and boundary conditions of specific cases. Optimizations are made using advanced optimization algorithms of form finding and topological optimization (ATOM – Abaqus Topology Optimization Module ®) and FEM for static analysis. Based on the analysis data of the examples presented on this paper with the use of advanced software, we conclude that spatial shells in 21-st century should be considered as the next engineering challenge in conjunction to architectural trends for free, irregular and diverse forms. In this article a theoretical study of the issue is made, including data from examples of optimization of shells with advanced algorithms using step by step sensitivity analysis. As a result of all data taken from the optimizations is concluded that using latest optimization algorithms, sensitivity analysis sums up to 40 % less stressed structures, and up to 30-40% lighter ones by creating structural openings.
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