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The journal of RESM is open to proposals for special issues on emerging related topics. More info is here.

Research Article

Optimizing cost and strength by utilization of blast furnace slag aggregate and recycled concrete sand in concrete using response surface models

Poonam, VP Singh

Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, (Haryana) India



Blast furnace slag aggregate;

Recycled concrete sand;

Optimize cost and concrete properties;

Response surface methodology;

Central composite design

The utilization of waste materials in concrete is crucial for sustainable construction, as it can contribute to environmental conservation and enhance concrete properties. Waste management and sustainable construction poses significant challenges in the construction industry. While numerous studies have focused on environmental conservation, only a limited number have explored the use of Blast furnace slag aggregate (BFSA) as coarse aggregate and recycled concrete sand (RCS) as fine aggregate to optimize cost and concrete properties using response surface models. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) was employed to evaluate the impact of BFSA (0-50%) and RCS (0-100%) replacement parameters on cost, compressive strength. ANOVA was used to verify the accuracy of the generated models. The RSM regression equations demonstrated high R2 values exceeding 0.8 for all responses, indicating that the models could explain variability in the responses. The cost and compressive strength were found to be a suitable relation with BFSA and RCS replacement levels. In conclusion, RSM can help reduce costs by incorporating waste materials into concrete without significantly impacting concrete properties.

© 2023 MIM Research Group. All rights reserved.


20/04/2024 Collaboration for HSTD-2024Editorial Board of our journal and Organizing Committee of the III. International Conference on High-Speed Transport Development (HSTD) have agreed to collaborate. Extended versions of the selected papers from the conference will be published in our journal. For more see Events.

20/04/2024 Collaboration for DSL2024-SS1Editorial Board of our journal and Organizing Committee of the DSL2024 Fluid Flow, Energy Transfer & Design (SS1) have agreed to collaborate. Extended versions of the selected papers from the session will be published in our journal. For more see Events. .

8/12/2023 Special Issue: Embark on a journey of innovation with the journal of Research on Engineering Structures and Materials as we unveil a compelling opportunity for contributors in our upcoming special issue, "Design, Analysis, and Manufacturing of Composite Vehicle Structures." Led by distinguished Guest Editors Liubov Gavva and Oleg Mitrofanov from Moscow Aviation Institute. For more info see the link.

(More details of the news may be given in the News section)

For more see News...


2023 Reviewer Awards:

Please, visit Reviewer Awards section for the winners of the 2022 RESM reviewer awards.

2023 Best Paper Award:

The paper authored by Ferzan Fidan, Naim Aslan, Mümin Mehmet Koç entitled as “Morpho-structural and compressive mechanical properties of graphene oxide reinforced hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue applications” is awarded.

2023 Most Cited Paper Award:

The paper authored by Ercan Işık, Ehsan Harirchian, Hüseyin Bilgin, Kirti Jadhav entitled as “The effect of material strength and discontinuity in RC structures according to different site-specific design spectra" is awarded.


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