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The journal of RESM is open to proposals for special issues on emerging related topics. More info is here.

Research Article

An investigation on optimizing the carbonation resistance of coal bottom ash concrete with its carbon footprints and eco-costs

Nitin Ankur, Navdeep Singh

Department of Civil Engineering, Dr BR Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, India





Carbon footprints;

 Compressive strength; 



Energy from coal-fed thermal power plants is provided at the cost of the generation of coal ash. Coal bottom ash (CBA) is an ash generated in coal-fed power plants which is landfilled. Existing literature reports the potential of CBA as a replacement for Portland cement (PC) and natural fine aggregates (NFA) in concrete. Carbonation is an important durability parameter of concrete having fatal consequences at later ages if not estimated and controlled as it leads to corrosion in reinforcement. In the present study, experimental, microstructural, and statistical analysis along with life cycle assessment was performed to investigate the combined effect of two-hour grinded CBA (GCBA) as PC (10-30%) and raw CBA as NFA replacement (0-50%) on compressive strength and carbonation resistance. Accelerated carbonation tests were performed at an exposure of four weeks after 28 and 90 days of curing. Among CBA-based concrete mixes, concrete with 20% GCBA and 25% CBA (G20C25) reported higher compressive strength and carbonation depth owing to pozzolanic reactivity and filler effect of fine CBA particles. However, G20C25 resulted in comparable performance in comparison with the control mix in terms of strength and carbonation resistance. The findings of X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy also validate the trends. The mathematical models derived for the carbonation resistance and strength were well-fitted. Multi-objective optimization recommended 21.5% GCBA and 29.8% CBA as the optimum amount that resulted in 20.08% and 19.40% lower carbon footprints and eco-costs compared to control mix.

© 2023 MIM Research Group. All rights reserved.


20/04/2024 Collaboration for HSTD-2024Editorial Board of our journal and Organizing Committee of the III. International Conference on High-Speed Transport Development (HSTD) have agreed to collaborate. Extended versions of the selected papers from the conference will be published in our journal. For more see Events.

20/04/2024 Collaboration for DSL2024-SS1Editorial Board of our journal and Organizing Committee of the DSL2024 Fluid Flow, Energy Transfer & Design (SS1) have agreed to collaborate. Extended versions of the selected papers from the session will be published in our journal. For more see Events. .

8/12/2023 Special Issue: Embark on a journey of innovation with the journal of Research on Engineering Structures and Materials as we unveil a compelling opportunity for contributors in our upcoming special issue, "Design, Analysis, and Manufacturing of Composite Vehicle Structures." Led by distinguished Guest Editors Liubov Gavva and Oleg Mitrofanov from Moscow Aviation Institute. For more info see the link.

(More details of the news may be given in the News section)

For more see News...


2023 Reviewer Awards:

Please, visit Reviewer Awards section for the winners of the 2022 RESM reviewer awards.

2023 Best Paper Award:

The paper authored by Ferzan Fidan, Naim Aslan, Mümin Mehmet Koç entitled as “Morpho-structural and compressive mechanical properties of graphene oxide reinforced hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue applications” is awarded.

2023 Most Cited Paper Award:

The paper authored by Ercan Işık, Ehsan Harirchian, Hüseyin Bilgin, Kirti Jadhav entitled as “The effect of material strength and discontinuity in RC structures according to different site-specific design spectra" is awarded.


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