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Research Article

Performance of high strength concrete containing locust bean pod ash as cement replacement

Felix Nkapheeyan Isa1, Megat Azmi Megat Johari1Iorwuese Anum2, Julius Lananzakan Agabus2 , Solomon Maxwell Soji2, Changlia Hassan Salihu1,2

1School of Civil Eng., Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal 14300, Malaysia
2 Department of Building, Modibbo Adama University, Yola, Nigeria



High-strength concrete; 

Locust bean pod ash; 

Compressive strength; 

Durability properties

High-strength concrete (HSC) is becoming popular as a result of its great strength and superior durability. Despite the fact that several supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) have been explored in HSC, the use of locust bean pod ash (LBPA) as an SCM has not been considered. This study evaluated the use of LBPA as an SCM in HSC. The locust bean pod (LBP) underwent a two-hour calcination process in a furnace at a temperature of 600 °C. At 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% by weight of cement, LBPA was used in place of cement. The slump, strength (compressive: 100 × 100 × 100 mm cubes; flexural: 100 × 100 × 400 mm beam, and splitting tensile: 100 × 200 mm cylinder at 28 days), water absorption, resistance to sulfate and the effects of elevated temperatures were assessed. Mechanical properties of the concrete were statistically analyzed and optimized using linear Regression. The results showed that 5% LPBA replacement improved compressive, flexural and tensile strengths by 13.14%, 6.42% and 7.08% respectively over the control samples. Additionally, LBPA improved the performance of concrete against water absorption, sulphate attack, and elevated temperatures. The optimized model of 15% LBPA had the highest accuracy with percentage errors of 5.89% and 2.78% for compressive and flexural strengths respectively, while 5% had the highest accuracy for tensile strength with percentage error of 3.08%. The study concludes that LBPA can be successfully used as an SCM in HSC, with a 10% recommended optimum replacement amount.

© 2023 MIM Research Group. All rights reserved.


20/04/2024 Collaboration for HSTD-2024Editorial Board of our journal and Organizing Committee of the III. International Conference on High-Speed Transport Development (HSTD) have agreed to collaborate. Extended versions of the selected papers from the conference will be published in our journal. For more see Events.

20/04/2024 Collaboration for DSL2024-SS1Editorial Board of our journal and Organizing Committee of the DSL2024 Fluid Flow, Energy Transfer & Design (SS1) have agreed to collaborate. Extended versions of the selected papers from the session will be published in our journal. For more see Events. .

8/12/2023 Special Issue: Embark on a journey of innovation with the journal of Research on Engineering Structures and Materials as we unveil a compelling opportunity for contributors in our upcoming special issue, "Design, Analysis, and Manufacturing of Composite Vehicle Structures." Led by distinguished Guest Editors Liubov Gavva and Oleg Mitrofanov from Moscow Aviation Institute. For more info see the link.

(More details of the news may be given in the News section)

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2023 Reviewer Awards:

Please, visit Reviewer Awards section for the winners of the 2022 RESM reviewer awards.

2023 Best Paper Award:

The paper authored by Ferzan Fidan, Naim Aslan, Mümin Mehmet Koç entitled as “Morpho-structural and compressive mechanical properties of graphene oxide reinforced hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue applications” is awarded.

2023 Most Cited Paper Award:

The paper authored by Ercan Işık, Ehsan Harirchian, Hüseyin Bilgin, Kirti Jadhav entitled as “The effect of material strength and discontinuity in RC structures according to different site-specific design spectra" is awarded.


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