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Research Article

Prediction of chloride ingress for palm kernel shell concrete

Samson Olalekan Odeyemi1, Omolola Titilayo Odeyemi2, Adewale George Adeniyi3, Zainab Tolu Giwa1, Ademola Kamorudeen Salami1, Adeyemi Adesina4

1Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Kwara State University Malete, Nigeria

2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, Nigeria

3Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

4Department of Civil Engineering, University of Windsor, Canada



Palm Kernel Shell;

 Chloride ingress; 


 Coarse aggregate;



Steel reinforcement corrosion emanating from ingress of chloride into concrete is the key reason for weakening of concrete structures globally. Infiltration of chloride into concrete happens by absorption and diffusion. On the other hand, reinforced concrete containing supplementary materials is more susceptible to corrosion exposure due to its high permeability. In this paper, two concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) were applied on concrete containing palm kernel shell as full replacement to granite. Concrete cube specimens of Grade 20 were cast into 150 mm by 150 mm by 150 mm moulds, and their workability were determined by compacting factor and slump tests. The hardened specimens were soaked in sodium chloride (NaCl) solution of 3% and 6% concentration. Spray, Absorption and Compressive strength tests were conducted at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Equations were generated by means of the data gotten from the laboratory tests to forecast the chloride penetration depth into the palm kernel shell concrete under the conditions considered in this work. The models generated revealed that absorption affected chloride ingress into the concrete significantly at 6% NaCl concentration. The models also reveal that the cover to reinforcements in Palm Kernel Shell Concrete subjected to chloride attack should be more than what is presently endorsed for reinforced concrete structures.

© 2021 MIM Research Group. All rights reserved.


31/12/2020 Most Cited Award: 

According to the Editorial Board evaluation, the paper authored by Nelson Batista, Rui Melicio, Victor Mendes entitled as “Darrieus vertical axis wind turbines: methodology to study the self-start capabilities considering symmetric and asymmetric airfoils" is awarded the 2020 Most Cited Paper Award of Research on Engineering Structures and Materials (RESM).

31/12/2020 Best Paper Award:

According to the Advisory Board decision, the paper authored by Marcelo Mesquita do Amaral, Matheus Wanglon Ferreira and Mauro de Vasconcellos Real entitled as “A simplified method for analysis of reinforced concrete beams exposed to fire situation” is awarded the 2020 Best Paper Award of Research on Engineering Structures and Materials (RESM).

02/11/2020 Indexed by SCOPUS: We are informed that our journal is accepted to be included in the SCOPUS Index. See mews for more info.

20/08/2020 Collaboration for IMSTEC 2020: Editorial Board of our journal and Organizing Committee of the 5. International Conference on Material Science and Technology (IMSTEC 2020) have agreed to collaborate. Extended versions of the selected papers from the conference will be published in our journal. For more see Events.

13/11/2019 Data articles as a new type of submision: Editorial Board of our journal have decided to accept a new type of submission: data articles. The focus of these papers is only on data and how it is collected but not on its interpretation and drawn conclusions. For more see News section.

(More details of the news may be given in the News section)

For more see News...


2020 Most Cited Paper Award:

The paper authored by Nelson Batista, Rui Melicio, Victor Mendes entitled as “Darrieus vertical axis wind turbines: methodology to study the self-start capabilities considering symmetric and asymmetric airfoils" is awarded the

2020 Best Paper Award:

The paper authored by Ahsen Ünal, Işıl Özer, Melek Erol Taygun, Sadriye Küçükbayrak entitled as “Fabrication and in-vitro evaluation of copper doped bioactive glass/polymer composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering” is awarded the 


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