Influence of MWCNTS on mechanical and in vitro biocompatibility properties of PMMA bone cement for orthopedic application
T V Vineeth Kumar1, N Shanmugapriya1, Arun S2, Madeva Nagaral3
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Siddaganga Institute of Technology (Autonomous Institution Affiliated to Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belagavi), Tumakuru 572 103, Karnataka, India
2Advanced Composites Division, CSIR - National Aerospace Laboratories, Bengaluru 560 017, Karnataka, India
3Aircraft Research and Design Centre, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, Bengaluru 56003, Karnataka, India
Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) serves as sealing material in securing the implant and distributing the load between the implant and bone. Fast polymerization and speedy patient recovery after surgery are the main benefits of using PMMA bone cement. Considering PMMA for orthopedic applications, the mechanical properties and biocompatibility studies are important. In this study, Simplex P bone cement is reinforced with carboxyl functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-COOH) to evaluate compressive strength, Shore D hardness, and in vitro biocompatibility properties. MWCNTs are added to the PMMA powder in different amounts using a geometric dilution technique. The PMMA/MWCNT nanocomposite is prepared with MWCNTs varying from 0.1 wt. % to 0.7 wt. %. The compressive strength and Shore D hardness values increased to a maximum of 69.21% and 4.84%, respectively for 0.3 wt. % loading. The in vitro cytotoxicity studies on MG-63 cells show a percentage cell viability of 81.37 % for 0.3 wt. % and 83.25 % for 0.7 wt. % MWCNTs loading. Hemolysis studies on human B+ve blood exhibited a low hemolytic potential of 15.12% for 0.3 wt. % and 16.38% for 0.7 wt. % MWCNTs loading on human RBCs. It is concluded that the prepared PMMA/MWCNT nanocomposites are found to have enhanced mechanical properties compared to Simplex P bone cement.
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