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Review Article

Evaluating the effects of agricultural wastes on concrete and composite mechanical properties: a review

Abiodun Kilani, Christopher Fapohunda, Oluwatobi Adeleke, Charity Metiboba

1,2Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University Oye - Ekiti, Ekiti – State; Nigeria
2Department of Mechanical Engineering Science, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
3Department of Bio-Resource and Agricultural Engineering, Federal University Oye - Ekiti, Ekiti – State; Nigeria



Mechanical properties;

Agricultural wastes;



Pozzolanic material

Wastes generation and emission of greenhouse gases are the major concerns of the contemporary world. Concrete’s cements companies in the globe are producing up to 2.8 billion tons of cements annually. This contributed to the emission of anthropogenic substances into the atmosphere which destroys the ozone layers. The incessant disposal of these agricultural wastes has detrimental effect on the environmental and human health. Thus, utilizing these wastes as secondary resources in concrete is a reasonable consideration in sustainable waste management in the circular economy. The use of agricultural wastes in concrete production has been gaining attraction in recent years, however, their effectiveness and performance in concrete need evaluation. This study presents an overview of the effects of some agricultural wastes: Bagasse, Coconut shell, Cotton, Oil palm and Hemp fibers on concrete and composite’s mechanical properties. As reviewed, Sugar-Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) and Coconut Shell Ash (CSA) are rich in cementitious (pozzolanic) properties (SiO2, Fe2O3 and Al2O3) for cement production up to 70%. Sugar-cane bagasse and oil palm-fiber ashes improved concrete workability. SCBA and CSA highly increased the concrete compressive strengths. The concrete tensile strengths were increased up to 97% with the inclusion of cotton and bagasse ashes. The SCBA, hemp-fiber and treated oil palm - fiber ash increased the concrete and composite’s flexural strengths up to 11.3%, 26.2% and 50.7% respectively. In conclusion, the output of this review will supply full data of the research gaps yet to cover on the use of agro-wastes in concrete for future investigations.

© 2021 MIM Research Group. All rights reserved.


8/12/2023 Special Issue: Embark on a journey of innovation with the journal of Research on Engineering Structures and Materials as we unveil a compelling opportunity for contributors in our upcoming special issue, "Design, Analysis, and Manufacturing of Composite Vehicle Structures." Led by distinguished Guest Editors Liubov Gavva and Oleg Mitrofanov from Moscow Aviation Institute. For more info see the link.

21/10/2023 Journal Submission System Upgrade Completed: We're delighted to announce that our Journal Submission and Tracking System has undergone a significant upgrade, aimed at enhancing your experience. We apologize for the delay, and any inconvenience it may have caused. Here are the key enhancements from a user perspective:

Improvements are designed to make your interaction with our journal smoother and more efficient. Please take the upgraded system for a spin and share your thoughts with us. If you encounter any issues or have questions, please don't hesitate to reach out to our support team.

27/12/2022 Reviewer AwardsThe winners of 2022 reviewer awards of Research on Engineering Structures and Materials (RESM) are announced. More information can be found at Reviewer Awards section. 

(More details of the news may be given in the News section)

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2022 Reviewer Awards:

Please, visit Reviewer Awards section for the winners of the 2022 RESM reviewer awards.

2022 Best Paper Award:

The paper authored by Nitin Kumar, Michele Barbato, Erika L. Rengifo-López and Fabio Matta entitled as “Capabilities and limitations of existing finite element simplified micro-modeling techniques for unreinforced masonry” is awarded the 

2022 Most Cited Paper Award:

The paper authored by Aykut Elmas, Güliz Akyüz, Ayhan Bergal, Müberra Andaç and Ömer Andaç entitled as “Mathematical modelling of drug release" is awarded the


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