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The journal of RESM is open to proposals for special issues on emerging related topics. More info is here.

Review Article

Approaches considering non-linearity in soil-foundation-interaction: A State-of-the-Art Review

Vishal Kumar Mourya, Gaurav Pandey, Dhirendra Patel, Rajesh Kumar

Department of Civil Engineering, IIT (BHU) Varanasi, India



Continuum Modelling;

Beam-on-nonlinear Winkler Foundation model;

Macro Modelling;

Centrifuge Experiment;

1-g Test

Seismic excitation causes the soil to begin acting nonlinearly at higher strain. Hence, the nonlinearity of the soil, foundation, and structure should be appropriately considered. This can be achieved by proper modelling of soil-structure-foundation interaction (SSI). The continuum, Winkler-based, and Macroelement models are the major modelling techniques for considering SSI. The continuum method involves determining absorbing boundaries, the size of the soil domain, soil element size, constitutive soil model, and soil structure interface. In contrast, the Winkler-based model uses nonlinear spring and dashpot to represent inelastic behaviour and energy dissipation properties of soil, respectively. Macroelement replaces the entire soil foundation arrangement with one element at the bottom of the superstructure. The trade-off between the advantageous effects of the SSI model, particularly in terms of energy dissipation, and its unfavourable effects, such as settling or tilting, should also be optimised during the analysis and design phases. The present paper aims to provide a concise review and comparative analysis of the several methodologies proposed by the researchers that consider the nonlinearity in soil-foundation-structure interaction (SSI). The importance of the study lies in the adoption of an approach that reduces computational effort and time. Moreover, the experimental works are also reviewed with regard to the soil structure interaction. It can be inferred from the current study that various approaches have some benefits and drawbacks; thus, these approaches can opt accordingly.

© 2023 MIM Research Group. All rights reserved.


01/01/2024 Best Paper Award: The winners of 2023 Best Paper Award of Research on Engineering Structures and Materials (RESM) are announced. More information can be found at Author Awards section.

01/01/2024 Most Cited Paper Award: The winners of 2023 Most Cited Paper Award of Research on Engineering Structures and Materials (RESM) are announced. More information can be found at Author Awards section.

01/01/2024 Reviewer Awards: The winners of 2023 reviewer awards of Research on Engineering Structures and Materials (RESM) are announced. More information can be found at Reviewer Awards section.

8/12/2023 Special Issue: Embark on a journey of innovation with the journal of Research on Engineering Structures and Materials as we unveil a compelling opportunity for contributors in our upcoming special issue, "Design, Analysis, and Manufacturing of Composite Vehicle Structures." Led by distinguished Guest Editors Liubov Gavva and Oleg Mitrofanov from Moscow Aviation Institute. For more info see the link.

21/10/2023 Journal Submission System Upgrade Completed: We're delighted to announce that our Journal Submission and Tracking System has undergone a significant upgrade, aimed at enhancing user experience. 

(More details of the news may be given in the News section)

For more see News...


2023 Reviewer Awards:

Please, visit Reviewer Awards section for the winners of the 2022 RESM reviewer awards.

2023 Best Paper Award:

The paper authored by Ferzan Fidan, Naim Aslan, Mümin Mehmet Koç entitled as “Morpho-structural and compressive mechanical properties of graphene oxide reinforced hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue applications” is awarded.

2023 Most Cited Paper Award:

The paper authored by Ercan Işık, Ehsan Harirchian, Hüseyin Bilgin, Kirti Jadhav entitled as “The effect of material strength and discontinuity in RC structures according to different site-specific design spectra" is awarded.


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