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Research Article

Mix ratio design assessment of interlocking paving stone using both destructive and non-destructive methods

Atoyebi O. D.1,2, Odeyemi S. O.3, Chiadighikaobi P. C.4, Gana A. J.1,2, Onyia S. C.2

1Landmark University SDG 11 (Sustainable Cities and Communities Research Group)

2Department of Civil Engineering, Landmark University, Omuaran, Kwara State

3Department of Civil Engineering, Kwara State University, Malete, Kwara State

4Department of Civil Engineering, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria



Interlocking Paving Stone;

Mix Ratio;


Rebound Hammer

Interlocking paving stones have been produced in most developing countries with no specific method for testing the strength before use. This study presented the mix ratio design assessment of interlocking paving stone strength properties using both destructive and non-destructive methods. Six mix ratios were used to produce the interlocks and tests such as skid resistance, flexural strength, compressive strength and rebound hammer were conducted on 7, 14, 28, 56 and 90 days. All the skid resistance tests had British Pendulum Number (BPN) values greater than 75 specified in Table NA.2 of BS 1338:2003, the interlocking paving stone potential for skid is extremely low. The flexural strength was conducted following IS 15658:2006 and the result ranges from 1.34 – 5.38 N/mm2. The compressive strength result for the mix ratios ranges from 6.20 – 21.78 N/mm2 and mix ratio 1:3 had the highest compressive strength of 19.34, 21.78 N/mm2 at 56 and 90 days respectively. Table 1 of IS 15658:2006 is used to classify the paving stone for use in non-traffic areas based on the compressive strength results. A correlation model was developed combining all the mix ratio average rebound values and compressive strength, the regression equation was produced and an accuracy test was performed to check the regression formula estimates. This study validates the use of a rebound hammer as a non-destructive method on interlocks to predict the compressive strength with 79 % accuracy. Mix ratio 1:3, 1:2 is recommended for use in producing interlocks based on higher compressive and flexural strength.

© 2022 MIM Research Group. All rights reserved.


01/01/2024 Best Paper Award: The winners of 2023 Best Paper Award of Research on Engineering Structures and Materials (RESM) are announced. More information can be found at Author Awards section.

01/01/2024 Most Cited Paper Award: The winners of 2023 Most Cited Paper Award of Research on Engineering Structures and Materials (RESM) are announced. More information can be found at Author Awards section.

01/01/2024 Reviewer Awards: The winners of 2023 reviewer awards of Research on Engineering Structures and Materials (RESM) are announced. More information can be found at Reviewer Awards section.

8/12/2023 Special Issue: Embark on a journey of innovation with the journal of Research on Engineering Structures and Materials as we unveil a compelling opportunity for contributors in our upcoming special issue, "Design, Analysis, and Manufacturing of Composite Vehicle Structures." Led by distinguished Guest Editors Liubov Gavva and Oleg Mitrofanov from Moscow Aviation Institute. For more info see the link.

21/10/2023 Journal Submission System Upgrade Completed: We're delighted to announce that our Journal Submission and Tracking System has undergone a significant upgrade, aimed at enhancing user experience. 

(More details of the news may be given in the News section)

For more see News...


2023 Reviewer Awards:

Please, visit Reviewer Awards section for the winners of the 2022 RESM reviewer awards.

2023 Best Paper Award:

The paper authored by Ferzan Fidan, Naim Aslan, Mümin Mehmet Koç entitled as “Morpho-structural and compressive mechanical properties of graphene oxide reinforced hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue applications” is awarded.

2023 Most Cited Paper Award:

The paper authored by Ercan Işık, Ehsan Harirchian, Hüseyin Bilgin, Kirti Jadhav entitled as “The effect of material strength and discontinuity in RC structures according to different site-specific design spectra" is awarded.


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