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Research Article

Evaluation of coal based bottom ash as an alternative to fine aggregate in concrete: recommendations for specifications of bottom ash and its concrete mix design

P.N. Ojha, Abhishek Singh, Amit Trivedi, Brijesh Singh, Nitin Chowdhury

Centre for Construction Development & Research, National Council for Cement and Building Materials, India



Bottom ash;


Composite fine aggregate;

Mix design;


Present study is an attempt to develop recommendations for specifications of bottom ash and concrete mix design guidelines by carrying out studies on bottom ash samples collected from 10 thermal power plants across India. Bottom ash samples were evaluated for physical and chemical properties. Composite fine aggregates were prepared by replacing 10-50% of conventional fine aggregate with bottom ash. 70 concrete mix trials were carried out using composite fine aggregates and mixes were evaluated for fresh, hardened and durability properties. Study indicated that maximum replacement of conventional fine aggregate with bottom ash for preparation of OPC based concrete shall not exceed 50% by weight of total fine aggregate and fineness modulus of resultant composite fine aggregate for use in concrete as fine aggregate shall be at least 1.35. The compressive strength of concrete at 28 days for all trials using composite fine aggregates were comparable with compressive strength of control concrete made with 100% conventional fine aggregates. The carbonation depth of control concrete were 6.6 mm to 9.5 mm and for concrete with composite fine aggregates, carbonation depths were 5.5 to 11.0 mm. The RCPT results of all mixes (including control mixes) shows that all mixes are lying in same class of penetrability. The electrical resistivity values of control concrete mixes were 7.1 to 6.1 k-ohm-cm and for concrete with composite fine it was 6.7 to 8.58 k-ohm-cm. Based on the results; recommendations were derived for specification of coal based bottom ash for its utilisation as an alternative to conventional fine aggregate in concrete along with guidelines for concrete mix design.

© 2023 MIM Research Group. All rights reserved.


20/04/2024 Collaboration for HSTD-2024Editorial Board of our journal and Organizing Committee of the III. International Conference on High-Speed Transport Development (HSTD) have agreed to collaborate. Extended versions of the selected papers from the conference will be published in our journal. For more see Events.

20/04/2024 Collaboration for DSL2024-SS1Editorial Board of our journal and Organizing Committee of the DSL2024 Fluid Flow, Energy Transfer & Design (SS1) have agreed to collaborate. Extended versions of the selected papers from the session will be published in our journal. For more see Events. .

8/12/2023 Special Issue: Embark on a journey of innovation with the journal of Research on Engineering Structures and Materials as we unveil a compelling opportunity for contributors in our upcoming special issue, "Design, Analysis, and Manufacturing of Composite Vehicle Structures." Led by distinguished Guest Editors Liubov Gavva and Oleg Mitrofanov from Moscow Aviation Institute. For more info see the link.

(More details of the news may be given in the News section)

For more see News...


2023 Reviewer Awards:

Please, visit Reviewer Awards section for the winners of the 2022 RESM reviewer awards.

2023 Best Paper Award:

The paper authored by Ferzan Fidan, Naim Aslan, Mümin Mehmet Koç entitled as “Morpho-structural and compressive mechanical properties of graphene oxide reinforced hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue applications” is awarded.

2023 Most Cited Paper Award:

The paper authored by Ercan Işık, Ehsan Harirchian, Hüseyin Bilgin, Kirti Jadhav entitled as “The effect of material strength and discontinuity in RC structures according to different site-specific design spectra" is awarded.


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